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Estradiol, the Everything Estrogen

Estradiol is an estrogen steroid hormone found in most vertebrates, crustaceans, and insects. While there are several different hormones in the estrogen category, estradiol is the most prevalent and powerful. In humans, it is produced especially in females’ ovarian follicles as well as in testicles, adrenal glands, fatty tissue, liver, breasts, and the brain via a series of conversions from cholesterol. 

Present in both sexes, estradiol is involved in many different processes including stimulating pubertal growth spurts by increasing growth hormone production as well as limiting growth by inducing closure of long bones’ end plates. Estradiol also plays pivotal roles in the regulation of female menstrual cycles, development of breasts, mammary glands, widening hips, and feminine-associated distribution of fat, while in men estradiol prevents sperm cell death in the testes. In the liver, estradiol influences production of multiple types of proteins, and in the brain, it protects nerve cells and stimulates oxytocin release and receptivity. 

In addition to its role as a natural hormone, estradiol is used as a medication in hormone therapies for, among others, menopausal or transgender women. During menopause, follicular estradiol production stops and levels drop, resulting in skin weakening and wrinkling, loss of bone density, which can lead to increased incidence of fracture, and neurological issues like depression. On the other hand, high levels of estradiol have been linked to increased risk of breast, ovarian, and endometrial cancers.

Estradiol levels can be measured in the blood to check the functioning of ovaries and adrenal glands in cases of early or late puberty, menopause, irregular menstruation, gynecological cancers, or infertility. It is also a useful metric for placental function and progress during pregnancy, or during fertility treatments and hormone therapies.

Pyxis Laboratories now offers estradiol-6-BSA for the determination of estradiol by immunoassays. For orders or inquiries, please contact .