Ketamine is a selective antagonist of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor in the central nervous system, which blocks the flow of excessive ions through the receptor’s channel to prevent overactivation and resultant excitotoxicity. This has fuelled research into the use of ketamine as a treatment for various neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s. Further research is required to prove the theory that ketamine could be an effective treatment for such disorders, however. Medical ketamine is subsequently limited to anesthetic applications due to its powerful dissociative properties.
The molecular formula of ketamine (C13H16ClNO) is derivative of cyclohexanone. It is understood to inhibit the NMDA receptor while interacting with various opioid receptors, causing disassociation and an array of psychological side effects. It has been used sparingly in medicine since the 1960s, representing one of the most effective dissociative anesthetics ever synthesized.
The psychological side-effects of ketamine have resulted in its widespread use as a drug of abuse worldwide, and it has been placed in Schedule III in the US. Long-term ketamine abuse is associated with a range of side-effects including respiratory issues, localized dermatological conditions, and abnormal cardiovascular behavior. Detection of the drug through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and lateral flow tests with ketamine conjugates can be used for the setting of biomarkers in therapeutic drug monitoring.
Ketamine conjugates are formatted as a protein in water with a nominal preservative of 0.01% sodium azide. The conjugated protein is bovine serum albumin (BSA), one of the primary protein mediums for monoclonal antibodies and Hapten drug conjugations. Ketamine-BSA can be used to detect and quantify metabolized ketamine in biological samples, supporting drug dependency and dosage analysis in patients and recreational drug users.
Ketamine conjugates are used in conjunction with a chromatic agent that reacts according to the level of ketamine-BSA that has bound to metabolites in a urine sample. The higher the concentration of bound molecules, the more significant the chromatic response. This provides easily-visible analysis of the concentration of therapeutic or abused ketamine in a biological sample. Typically, this is achieved by immobilizing the ketamine conjugate on a nitrocellulose strip and introducing the biological analyte.
Ketamine Conjugates from Pyxis Labs
Pyxis Labs is one of the largest suppliers of immunological reagents for chemical analysis of biological samples in the US. We synthesize and supply ketamine conjugates with excellent levels of repeatability, alongside a range of additional drug conjugations for academic and medical research. These include:
- Alcohol such as, ethyl glucuronide-BSA (EtG-BSA);
- Amphetamines such as, Amphetamine-BSA, Methamphetamine-BSA, methcathinone-BSA, MDMA-BSA, MDPV-BSA, Mephedrone-BSA and Methylphenidate-BSA (Ritalin-BSA);
- Benzodiazepines, such as Oxazepam-BSA and Clonazepam-BSA;
- Cannabinoids such us, delta-8-THC-BSA, delta-9-THC-BSA; and synthetic cannabinoids such as, JWH-018-BSA, ABpinaca-BSA, UR144-BSA;
- Cocaine, such as BZEG-BSA;
- Hallucinogens/Anesthetics such as, PCP-BSA;
- Nicotinic such as, Cotinine-BSA.
- Opioids such as, Buprenorphine-BSA, Fentanyl-BSA, Methadone-BSA, Morphine-BSA, Oxycodone-BSA, Propoxyphene-BSA and others such as Chloramphenicol-BSA, Gabapentin-BSA and N-acetyl glucosamine-BSA (NAG-BSA).