Immunological reagents are high purity molecular compounds designed and synthesized for research, toxicology, and therapeutic drug monitoring applications. These are typically formulated as hapten drug conjugates, which are comprised of distinct drug molecules, highly stable chemical linkers, and larger protein. Multiple analytical methods are used to detect the presence, and determine the concentration, of a distinct analyte within a sample.
Drug concentration levels in biological samples can inform assessments of drug dependency, providing insights into dosage levels of abusive substances and potential treatment methods for symptoms of withdrawal. This article will explore these distinct chemical reagents and their potential applications in further detail:
Immunological Alcohols (Ethyl glucuronide)
Ethyl glucuronide-bovine serum albumin (BSA) is an immunological reagent formatted as a protein-liquid suspension with a minimal sodium azide preservative of just 0.01%. It is a metabolite of ethanol that is used for the detection of alcohol consumption using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA or EIA) or lateral flow equipment. Research applications of alcohol conjugates include toxicology and symptomatic allergen studies.
At Pyxis Labs, we supply eleven distinct immunological reagents for amphetamine studies, including both low and high hapten amphetamine-BSAs, and Methylphenidate (Ritalin)-BSA. These are similarly prepared as proteins in water and are used for established immunological analysis methodologies. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) can be detected in biological samples using MDMA-BSA and other immunological reagents due to cross-reactivity with methamphetamines, enabling the assessment of drug purity levels against inert or alternative stimulant media.
Benzodiazepines are psychoactive sedatives used to treat patients with anxiety disorders and severe withdrawal symptoms. The immunological reagents Benzodiazepine (Oxazepam)-BSA and Clonazepam-BSA are used to detect benzodiazepine concentration levels in organic samples using lateral flow methods, to determine blood- or urine-drug concentration levels against recommended dosages.
The primary psychoactive component of cannabinoids is tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which stimulates the central nervous system of a user with multiple side-effects. Consistent use or large doses of THC can cause harmful cannabis dependency. Immunological reagents such as THC Delta-8-BSA and THC Delta-9-BSA can be used to determine the severity of drug dependency through chromatic concentration detection using ELISA or dot blotting tests.
Benzoylecgonine, or cocaine, is an abusive stimulant that is considered one of the most widely used illegal drugs on the planet. It can be detected in biological samples using the immunological reagent cocaine monoclonal antibody. This product is preserved in a phosphate-buffered saline and is suitable for ELISA testing and radioimmunological assays, supporting highly precise assessment of even ultra-trace levels of cocaine in organic tissue or liquid samples.
Immunological Reagents from Pyxis Labs
Pyxis Laboratories is an expert in the synthesis of immunological reagents for research applications, providing high purity compounds and monoclonal antibodies for cutting-edge research applications.
Our range of immunological reagents available from Pyxis Labs includes:
- Alcohol such as, ethyl glucuronide-BSA (EtG-BSA);
- Amphetamines such as, Amphetamine-BSA, Methamphetamine-BSA, methcathinone-BSA, MDMA-BSA, MDPV-BSA, Mephedrone-BSA and Methylphenidate-BSA (Ritalin-BSA);
- Barbiturates, such as Barbital-BSA;
- Benzodiazepines, such as Oxazepam-BSA and Clonazepam-BSA;
- Cannabinoids such us, delta-8-THC-BSA, delta-9-THC-BSA; and synthetic cannabinoids such as, JWH-018-BSA, ABpinaca-BSA, UR144-BSA;
- Cocaine, such as BZEG-BSA;
- Hallucinogens/Anesthetics such as, Ketamine-BSA and PCP-BSA;
- Nicotinic such as, Cotinine-BSA.
- Opioids such as, Buprenorphine-BSA, Fentanyl-BSA, Methadone-BSA, Morphine-BSA, Oxycodone-BSA, Propoxyphene-BSA and others such as Chloramphenicol-BSA, Gabapentin-BSA and N-acetyl glucosamine-BSA (NAG-BSA).