Monoclonal antibodies are identical proteins produced from a single parent cell clone that exhibits unique chemical targeting specificity. The parent cell is capable of binding to a specific biochemical or antigenic determinant in a sample. Clones of this parent cell are engineered to reproduce this antigen-targeting capability to enable the detection or eradication of the determinant.
Commercialization of monoclonal antibodies was first achieved in the 1970s with the inception of Hapten drug conjugates. Proteins such as bovine serum albumin (BSA) and bovine thromboglobulin (BTG), or enzymes like horseradish peroxidase (HRP) were fastened to antigen molecules using highly-stable chemical linkers. These unique biochemical structures represented outstanding target specificity with an enormous range of applications in medical and diagnostic research.
Primarily, monoclonal antibodies are used as biomarkers for detecting therapeutic drugs or drugs of abuse in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA or EIA). This immunochemical technology also forms the basis of rapid, at-home diagnostic pregnancy kits. Ongoing research into the potential applications of monoclonal antibodies is focussed on the use of Hapten drug conjugates for immunotherapy.
Existing Monoclonal Antibody Pharmaceuticals
The first biopharmaceutical monoclonal antibodies were used to prevent organ transplant rejections. Orthoclone (OKT3) was engineered to suppress the immunological responses that caused bodies to reject renal, heart, and liver transplants. Despite voluntary withdrawal from the biopharmaceutical market, OKT3 paved the way for tens of resultant monoclonal antibodies to achieve approval in European markets and by the FDA.
Current biopharmaceutical monoclonal antibodies approved by the FDA feature indications of numerous conditions, including arthritis, melanomas, multiple sclerosis, chronic asthma, and metastatic breast cancer.
This is achieved by conjugating monoclonal antibodies with medicinal payloads. The high target specificity of the protein or enzyme ensures that an increased volume of the drug reaches the inflamed or diseased tissue. Linking the bioactivity of a therapeutic agent to the enzymatic carrier reduces the activity of the drug until the conjugate has bound to the surface of the specific determinant. Payloads are then delivered directly through the cell-surface of the damaged locality.
The adverse effects of monoclonal antibodies administered in vivo requires additional research to ensure that they are suitable for immunotherapy.
Monoclonal Antibodies from Pyxis Laboratories
Pyxis Laboratories provides the highest-purity immunochemical reagents available with outstanding lot-to-lot reproducibility. Our monoclonal antibodies are designed for cutting-edge research applications to support the characterization of antigenic materials conjugated with BSA. The monoclonal antibodies available from Pyxis Laboratories include:
- Amphetamines such as methcathinone and methamphetamine;
- Benzodiazepines such as clonazepam;
- Cannabinoids, and synthetic cannabinoids such as K2, pinaca, and UR-144;
- Cocaine such as benzoylecgonine;
- Anaesthetics such as ketamine and PCP;
- Opioids such as fentanyl and morphine.